Massive Navy USS George Washington Overhaul Brings New … – Scout

The Navy and Huntington Ingalls Industries are beginning a massive upgrade and technical adjustment to its USS George Washington Nimitz-Class aircraft carrier — to enable the ship to operate the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter aircraft and serve for 25-more years with newly configured structures, weapons systems, defenses, propulsion, computer automation and advanced digital networking technology. The 48-month long process, called Refueling Complex Overhaul, is an aircraft carrier mid-life technological boost and refurbishment to include work on the hull, flight-deck, arresting gear, catapults and a remodification of the “island house” on the ship, Chris�Miner, Vice President, Carrier Program, Huntington Ingalls, told Scout Warrior in an interview. The overall SSTD system, which consists of a sensor, processor and small interceptor missile, is a first-of-its-kind “hard kill” countermeasure for�ships�and carriers designed to defeat�torpedoes, Navy officials said. The emergence of a specifically-engineered torpedo defense system is quite significant for the Navy – as it comes a time when many weapons developers are contemplating new ship-defense technologies and considering various carrier configurations for the future in light of fast-emerging threats from long-range anti-ship missiles, torpedoes and hypersonic weapons. �An ability to protect large carrier platforms from submarine-launched torpedo attacks adds a substantial element to a carrier?s layered defense systems. After delivery in 2021, the USS�George�Washington�will be one of the most modern and technologically advanced�Nimitz-class aircraft carriers in the fleet, HII officials said. The RCOH for the USS George Washington will focus heavily on a host of technical adjustments designed to help the carrier accommodate the emerging F-35C carrier-launched stealth fighter ? once it is ready for operational service. The emergence of a first-of-its kind F-35C carrier-launched stealth fighter is intended to give the Navy more combat attack flexibility and attack sophisticated enemy air defenses or fortified targets from a sea-based carrier. The process involves upgrading and modernizing the nuclear propulsion plant and replacing valves on all of the generators and turbines. The Navy’s future aircraft carrier-based air wings will consist of a mix of F-35C, F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, EA-18G Growlers electronic attack aircraft, E-2D Hawkeye battle management and control aircraft, MH-60R/S helicopters and Carrier Onboard Delivery logistics aircraft such as the Navy Osprey. Stealthy F-35C carrier aircraft, having a lower radar signature, are expected to deliver advanced attack and air-to-air and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance platforms, able to perform a wider range of operations without being detected by an enemy. The aircraft is part of a broader Navy strategy to be well equipped in the event that it needs to engage in massive, major-power war against a near-peer adversary such as Russia and China known to have advanced air-defenses and air-to-air platforms. The F-35C – the Navy’s and Marine Corps’ carrier-suitable variant (CV) ? is designed to combine unprecedented at-sea stealth with fighter speed and agility, fused targeting, cutting-edge avionics, advanced jamming, network-enabled operations and advanced sustainment. In a previously released document described as the “Naval Aviation Vision,” the F-35C is described as being engineered with reinforced landing gear and durable coatings to allow the F-35C to withstand harsh shipboard conditions while delivering a lethal combination of fighter capabilities to the fleet. The full complement of armaments for the F-35C is designed to maximize its potential mission envelope and allow it to drop laser and GPS-guided precision Joint Direct Attack Munitions, use air-to-air weapons in the event that the aircraft needs to dogfight or destroy enemy drones and fire a 25mm gun. During prior testing, the F-35C took off with one GBU-31, two AIM-120s and four GBU-12s along with its 25mm gun mounted in a pod on the aircraft. The F-35C is also able to fire the AIM-9X along with other weapons; in the future it will have an ability to drop a Small Diameter Bomb II – a high-tech weapon now in development able to track and destroy moving targets from great distances using a tri-mode seeker. Both the training and the continued technology development of the F-35C include efforts to refine a precision-landing technology called Joint Precision Approach & Landing Systems, or JPALs. JPALS, slated to be operational by 2019, works with the GPS satellite navigation system to provide accurate, reliable and high-integrity guidance for fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, Navy statements said. Also, Navy information described JPALS as a system featuring anti-jam protection to ensure mission continuity in hostile environments.� ?JPALS is a differential GPS that will provide an adverse weather precision approach and landing capability,? a Navy statement said. Unlike the old mechanical way of doing things, the laser can pick data points and take a picture that is easily captured for future use,? James Mosman, the ship’s chief engineer, said in a Navy report. “Clearing all of the workspaces on the ship just mitigated the possibility of any delays, thus setting us up for success going in. With not only evolutions like SCOOP, but getting ready in general, we (George Washington’s crew and ship’s force) had to be a team.” The Navy?s Consolidated Afloat Networks and Enterprise Services will become the new ship-wide network, which will include a new video distribution and surveillance systems, and the mast and the SPN-49 radar tower will be cut off and replaced with a modern design, Navy officials said. CANES is a next-generation integrated combat communications, radio and computer network designed to seamlessly network ships, submarines, shore locations and other tactical nodes in a maritime environment. The Navy is taking technical steps to upgrade, expand and cyber harden CANES as a way to keep pace with the fast pace of technological change and emerging threats. CANES is being installed on carriers, amphibious assault ships, destroyers and submarines, and the service has completed 50 CANES systems and has 12 more in production, Navy developers said. CANES is able to gather and securely transmit data from various domains and enclaves, including secret and unclassified networks, Navy officials told Scout Warrior. The Navy plan is to allow ship networks to optimize functions in a high-risk or contested combat scenario by configuring them to quickly integrate new patches and changes to defend the network. “A lot of areas get stripped down to essentially just the steel structure — and get reconstructed as though they were new, such as the catapults,? an HII executive explained. Overall, RCOH affords an occasion to execute substantial technological upgrades on the ship such as refueling the ship?s reactors and performing extensive modernization work on more than 2,300 compartments, 600 tanks and hundreds of systems, a Huntington Ingalls statement said.

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The White House Announces the 2017-2018 Class of White House Fellows – Whitehouse.gov (press release)

Today, the President?s Commission on White House Fellows announces the appointment of the 2017-2018 class of White House Fellows. The prestigious White House Fellows program provides professionals from diverse backgrounds with an opportunity to engage in public service for one year by serving in various roles in Federal government. Most recently, he served as a reactor safety inspector and technical lead on the Navy?s nuclear propulsion examining board. Ashore, he led midshipmen as a company officer at the United States Naval Academy and taught courses in seamanship & navigation and leadership. An active volunteer with churches, food banks, and homeless shelters, he and his wife, Amy, have sought to make a difference in their community throughout his naval career. He graduated with honors from the United States Naval Academy, receiving a B.S. in computer science, and participated on the men?s glee club. Selected for the immediate graduate education program, he graduated with honors from the Naval Postgraduate School and received a M.S. in computer science. Kyle is a surgeon interested in improving the access and quality of surgical services in the United States. He is currently a resident in general surgery at the University of Michigan. Through his work with the Michigan surgical quality collaborative, he is involved in the development and implementation of initiatives that reduce costs and complications for high-risk surgery. As a fellow at the Center for Healthcare Outcomes and Policy, Kyle?s research uses delivery system science to understand which treatments are most effective and how to institute large-scale practice changes. He holds degrees in medicine, clinical research design and biostatistics from the University of Michigan, where he was the recipient of the dean?s award for research excellence. Kyle was a founding member of the academic surgeon development program, which fosters mentorship and career development for students interested in academic medicine. Jake Steel is from Garden City, Kansas and is placed in the White House Office of the Domestic Policy Council. His focus on closing the achievement gap through the use of one-to-one technology has increased state test scores by over 30 percentage points, which assisted in the school?s state report card being increased by two letter grades. As an infantry officer, he led soldiers throughout the Middle East, Asia, and the Pacific, including three combat tours in Iraq and two combat tours in Afghanistan. Jake is a former Teach for America corps member and contributed to the organization on an alumni board. He served for two years as a full-time humanitarian volunteer in Ohio and volunteered as a community choir director and as an instructor for high school and college level seminary courses. After attending Johns Hopkins University, he was honored by the alumni council for the school of education for his commitment and leadership in his community. Jake earned a B.S. in communications from Brigham Young University, Idaho and an M.S. in education from Johns Hopkins University. Chris recently graduated from the Harvard Kennedy School (HKS) of government with a master in public administration. Prior to attending HKS, Chris acted as the business advisor to the executive vice president (EVP) of unconventionals for Shell, where he supported the EVP on day-to-day operations and long-term strategic matters. Before taking on the business advisor role, Chris was the completion engineering manager for Shell Appalachia, overseeing engineering activities across multiple appraisal and development areas in Appalachia. During Ryan?s most recent assignment in Hawaii, he led 4,200 Soldiers as deputy Commander and Brigade executive officer of the 2nd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 25th Infantry Division. Prior to his international assignments, he worked as a completion engineer supporting unconventional gas operations in the Pinedale Anticline and as a production engineer supporting multiple assets in the Gulf of Mexico. Most recently, he served on the board of advisors for Sourcewater, a water sharing platform for the energy industry. He holds a B.S. in petroleum engineering from the Colorado School of Mines, an M.B.A. from MIT, and an M.P.A. from Harvard. An attack helicopter pilot by trade, Katelyn conducted combat operations in Helmand Province, Afghanistan and counter-piracy operations in the Horn of Africa and Gulf of Aden. Previously, Ryan served as deputy director for the Combating Terrorism Center and as an assistant professor of economics for the United States Military Academy?s Department of Social Sciences. In her final active assignment, Katelyn instructed new Marine Corps officers in tactics and leadership as a staff platoon commander at The Basic School in Quantico. In her personal capacity, Katelyn co-founded and served as director of strategy and policy for No Exceptions, a nonpartisan initiative that advocated for the military to fully integrate women into all combat arms specialties. The efforts of No Exceptions contributed to the successful implementation of this Department of Defense policy change in 2016. Katelyn was selected as the American Red Cross Tiffany Circle distinguished woman warrior of the year in 2015. Foreign Policy Institute, War on the Rocks, Just Security, Marine Corps Gazette, and US Naval Institute, and was a guest on the Center for Strategic and International Studies? smart women, smart power podcast and the Diane Rehm Show. She recently completed a master of arts degree in international economics and international relations at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in Washington, D.C. While in New York, Ryan led the West Point Parachute Team, winning a national championship in 2014, and co-founded the junior board for the Friends of the Children, a non-profit organization in New York City. Mathew Zulauf is from Muskegon, Michigan and is placed in the White House Office of the Staff Secretary. Mat is a Major in the United States Air Force and was a B-2 stealth bomber pilot. He served as the 509th Bomb Wing nuclear executive manager where he was responsible for the coordination, planning, and execution of the nuclear missions of the B-2. He deployed to the European and Pacific theaters on strategic assurance and deterrence missions. Previously, he served as a flight commander responsible for the military training and flight training of student pilots from the U.S. and numerous allied NATO countries. Other prior assignments included executive officer for the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board, aide to the chief of staff, Office of Science and Technology Policy, Executive Office of the President, and intern at NASA?s advanced space propulsion laboratory developing a plasma engine for deep space travel. His awards include the Bronze Star Medal, the Defense Meritorious Service Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal, Ranger Tab and the Combat Infantryman Badge. Ryan received a B.S. in management and Asian studies from the United States Air Force Academy, where he graduated with athletic distinction. He earned a M.S. in international relations from Troy University and a M.B.A. from Columbia Business School, where he served as class president. Created in 1964 by President Lyndon B. Johnson, the White House Fellows program was designed ?to give the fellows first hand, high-level experience with the workings of the Federal government and to increase their sense of participation in national affairs.? As an infantry officer, he served in both conventional and special operations units, spending 42 months deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most notably Joe commanded a company that secured the largest oil refinery in Iraq where his efforts helped build economic capacity and minimize insurgent financing from black market fuel. Joe also served as an assistant professor of international relations at the United States Military Academy?s Department of Social Sciences, where he ran the department?s annual national security conference, co-edited a compendium on American grand strategy, and served as an active term member of the Council on Foreign Relations. Joe earned a B.S. in American politics from the United States Military Academy, where he was the class president for the class of 2002. He also earned an M.A. with honors from the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in international economics and strategic studies. Previously, she managed the Arizona Teaching Fellows, a program placing teachers in high-need schools in Phoenix, Yuma, and the Navajo Nation communities in northeast Arizona. She also led the Oakland Practitioner Teacher Program, a special education certification program supporting Oakland Teaching Fellows and Teach for America corps members in the bay area. Prior to joining TNTP, Rachel served as a school administrator in San Francisco, a Teach for America recruitment director in the mid-Atlantic region, and a high school English teacher in Baltimore. She was the founding board chair for CASA Academy, a K-3 public charter school in Phoenix, and currently serves on the board for the Capital Pride Alliance in Washington, D.C. Rachel received a B.A. in English literature, Phi Beta Kappa and summa cum laude, from Texas A&M University and an M.A. in teaching from the Johns Hopkins University. The mission of the White House Fellows program is to encourage active citizenship and service to the Nation. Most recently, she served as senior policy advisor to the director of science and technology for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. As a soldier and as a defense contractor, Cristina has led teams, delivered policy recommendations, and deployed innovative technologies to ensure the safety of those protecting our nation. She has served in Iraq and Afghanistan and has trained over 500 military members and intelligence analysts to support various missions all over the world. Cristina is also a Gold Star family member, having lost her brother while he served in the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment in Afghanistan in 2009. While in the Army, Cristina received the Military Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal and she continues to volunteer and serve underprivileged communities today. Throughout the year, fellows actively participate in an education program that expands their knowledge of leadership, policy-making, and contemporary issues. Shahla is a physician who has worked to address the medical needs of underserved populations, most recently at Unity Health Care, a non-profit organization. Community service also plays a vital role in the program, as fellows take part in service projects throughout the year. Before medicine, Shahla was a researcher studying tumor angiogenesis, resulting in scholarly publications; and, earning college honors, highest departmental honors, and joint M.A. ? B.S. through the UCLA Scholars Program in molecular, cell, developmental biology. The highly competitive selection process to become a White House Fellow is based on a record of remarkable professional accomplishment, evidence of leadership skills and the potential for further growth, and a commitment to public service. He has also served as a mentor at Lewisham Leaving Care in London, a program to help youths transition from juvenile detention and learn life skills. Jeffrey McLean is from Mequon, Wisconsin and is placed in the White House Office of American Innovation. As a Navy Test Pilot, Jeff served as project officer for the revolutionary X-47B Unmanned Combat Air System that made history as both the first unmanned aircraft to land on an aircraft carrier and the first to achieve autonomous aerial refueling. His writing has appeared in several publications and he served as vice chairman of the U.S. Jeff previously served as president of the Truman Scholars Association, a next generation national security leader with the Center for a New American Security, and a millennium leadership fellow with the Atlantic Council. A lifelong community leader, he was awarded the Military Outstanding Volunteer Service Medal and Outstanding Young Wisconsinite award for his impact through community service and through humanitarian projects in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Kampala, Uganda. He is a Fulbright and Truman Scholar and received an M.A. from Oxford University, an M.B.A. from The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, and a B.S. with honors and distinction from the U.S. Crystal Moore is from Meridian, Mississippi and is placed in the White House Office of Public Liaison. Prior to Fullbridge, Crystal was a consultant for Parthenon-EY, where she advised colleges and universities, national foundations, policy organizations, and private investment firms. Her commitment to the education sector began as a ProInspire fellow at D.C. public schools, and led her to interning for the White House Domestic Policy Council?s education policy team. Crystal has contributed through various organizations over 2,000 hours to mentoring underrepresented minority students and she is a previous participant in the Echoing Green Direct Impact Program. While at Xavier University of Louisiana, Crystal was elected to serve as student body president and was the recipient of the St. Katherine Drexel Award, Xavier?s highest student honor for service and leadership. At Fuqua, she concentrated her studies in strategy and social entrepreneurship and studied education policy at the London School of Economics. Matthew Phillips is from Christiansburg, Virginia and is placed in the Office of the Vice President of the United States.

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America has forgotten the value of the humanities at the moment it needs them most

When a champion of critical thinking like Tyson is unclear on the very purpose of the humanities, it?s fair to say higher education is facing a public relations crisis, a reality also highlighted by the recent Pew Research Center poll showing that a majority of Republicans believe higher education has a ?negative effect? on the country. Universities face untenable budgets and a dire faculty job market at the same time the public is questioning the value of a college education in light of rising tuition and student loan burdens. But the transformation in public attitudes toward universities is not based on a concrete loss of value: Higher education continues to correlate with improved employability and incomes . U.S. universities continue ?�for the time being ? to maintain a global competitive edge. Instead, people?s attitudes about college reflect a changed political perception about the role that higher education plays in American life . Rightward shifts in attitudes toward government investment and the value of social mobility and diversity have transformed the idea of public investment in education from a staple of American society to a partisan wedge issue. It?s not that the university is no longer providing what it used to ? though it is having increasing difficulty doing so. Rather, the right has abandoned the premise of liberal arts education because they increasingly perceive it as not a driver of broad social and economic advancement but as a mere incubator for liberal ideas in the narrow political sense. As industrialization and modern bureaucratic states empowered the middle class in the 19th century, though, universities also began to serve as a pathway to social advancement, with land-grant universities founded across the United States. This changed dramatically with new technology and new political imperatives after World War II. Defeating fascism�? a system based on a hierarchical and racist worldview�?�pushed the Western world toward a broader understanding of democracy and pluralism. Simultaneously, the technological innovations of the war brought renewed urgency to research in fields such as computing, radar and nuclear energy, often funded by federal and state governments anxious to build on military and economic advantages as the Cold War intensified. The GI Bill brought a generation of working-class veterans into college for the first time, and a growing service sector fueled demand for graduates. This boom floated on into a second, baby-boomer expansion as newly middle-class parents sent their children to college for the first time. In need of faculty to meet this demand, universities paid professors well and the broader public respected their work. Publicly funded universities enjoyed popular support because they were the engine behind the massive prosperity and global leadership the United States�enjoyed in the mid-20th century�(yes, the period that many college critics are nostalgic for today). Universities fueled social mobility by qualifying huge numbers of people for white-collar jobs and acculturating students from all backgrounds to middle-class norms of respect for knowledge and critical thinking. At the same time, a cutting-edge university research system trained scientists who drove commercial productivity and innovation, brought man to the moon, extended human life spans, eradicated deadly diseases and brought us the digital age. But in the late 1960s, the public will to invest in higher education began to wane as conservatives blamed universities for social unrest. The same ethos of critical thinking taught by universities ? and up to this point associated with professionalism and leadership ? drove some students to challenge postwar power structures, and campuses became an undeniable hotbed of political activism. Tuition rose and student loan programs were introduced to meet budget shortfalls, but those rising costs had the unintended consequence of further eroding public support. The growing visibility of women and minority faculty was the logical outgrowth of postwar pluralism, but it increased right-wing fears of the university as a liberal bastion. By the 1980s, conservative political arguments about small government combined with these institutional and cultural changes to make many voters unwilling to further support large-scale public investment in higher education. Before World War II, when training in critical thinking and open-ended inquiry was restricted to elites, it had not unduly challenged conservative values of insularity and hierarchy. By the following decade, universities began to make up for the withering of public funding by hiring contingent faculty . Enjoying an overabundance of more diverse and better-qualified candidates than ever, colleges pay adjuncts only per contact hour of teaching, not for mentoring or research. This shift has affected students by making it harder to get the mentoring or access to cutting-edge research, features that are meant to define university education. Dissatisfaction with this situation is understandable, but the rarely acknowledged root cause goes back to the withdrawal of public funding, which is causing a death spiral in higher education. The crisis is set to become even more acute: Jobs are changing faster than people can train for them , and what college does best is teach people how to think and process information. Especially vital are a group of disciplines we should call the information sciences, a.k.a. the humanities, social sciences, library science, computer science and digital humanities ? the fields that Tyson couldn?t seem to recall. Identifying high-quality information (and knowing what makes it high-quality) and communicating complicated or abstract ideas from multiple perspectives are at least as important to our digital future as the STEM fields (science, technology, engineering and math) have been to the industrial age. We need politicians who are able to view a range of options delivered by experts and choose wisely among them. We need educators able to explain and analyze complexity and pass on those skills to new generations. Katherine Pickering Antonova is associate professor of history at Queens College, CUNY and author of “An Ordinary Marriage: The World of a Gentry Family in Provincial Russia.”

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Land Rover challenge: captain of the Navy’s new aircraft carrier takes a voyage of Discovery

A few weeks ago the nation?s aircraft carrier and flagship HMS Queen Elizabeth arrived for the first time to its home base in Portsmouth under the command of Captain Jerry Kyd.�The 65,000 ton ship?s move came after several weeks of sea trials in the North Sea and months of training by the crew and Captain for this is the biggest ship ever built for the Royal Navy, and is completely untried. The ship will be ?road tested?�by Telegraph Cars at a later date but we wanted to see how the captains of HMS Queen Elizabeth and its sister ship HMS Prince of Wales, currently being built in Rosyth, Scotland, would fare road testing the latest Land Rover Discovery. They nearly missed the roadside caf� where they stopped for a great coffee. ?Luckily, the Discovery?s stopping is good with powerful brakes ? HMS Queen Elizabeth takes two miles to stop from full speed (somewhere north of 27 knots),? said Captain Groom. �They then missed the highest hedge in the world, didn?t see the squirrels crossing sign and nearly didn’t deviate at the Spittal of Glenshee. ?In terms of power and drive systems, both the Discovery and the HMS Queen Elizabeth class carriers have more in common than one might think with impressive power available almost instantly and fit for purpose. In the case of the carriers, over 110 mega Watts of raw power generated from two massive Rolls Royce Trent gas turbines (the same ones that grace many airliners) linked up to four enormous V16 Wartsila Diesels, enough power to supply the whole of Swindon. They eventually found the famous Devil?s Elbow hairpin on the old stretch of the A93 and then headed for Balmoral. A quick ring on the doorbell and Her Majesty?s �Resident Factor Richard Gledson emerged to give them the next set of orders, taking them over one of the most famous roads in Scotland, the A939 Cock Bridge to Tomintoul. They were getting into the spirit of the event, managing the clues and the old technology of map reading was working a treat. On the way they had to find the Well of the Lecht, which commemorates that in 1754 Colonel Lord Charles Hey and five companies of the 33rd Regiment built the military road from the Lecht “to the Spey” at Grantown-on-Spey. So we challenged Captain Jerry Kyd of HMS Queen Elizabeth and Captain Ian Groom of HMS Prince of Wales to drive the new Discovery across Scotland acting on Telegraph motoring orders, using only maps, clues and no Sat Nav. ?That’s easy, bring it on!? said Kyd. Then a visit to Tomintoul, the highest village in the Highlands, and on to the Osprey Centre at Boat of Garten, run by the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, to find a set of WW2 U-Boat binoculars. After the rock climb, Jerry forded a deep pool of water nearly a metre deep, we kept a bit of power and let the car do the work. We were bone dry, and the car didn?t even seem to notice the water pressure at the bow.? ?In both platforms flexibility is key where the engineering is tailored to suit the terrain or requirement.� HMS Queen Elizabeth will automatically configure her power and propulsion systems for a range of situations: diesel running for optimum fuel efficiency for long ocean passages, or all engines to maximum resilience for Action Stations when fighting and maximum speed for launching her air wing, which will soon include the latest ?Generation 5? F-35B Lightning fighter jet bought for both the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force.? ?The list of similarities goes on with the latest platform management and collision avoidance systems or the extensive use of inbuilt cameras to maximise the operators situational awareness.� Even the Discovery?s electric tow bar can be deployed at the touch of a button, much like the ship?s mast, which can be similarly lowered to allow access to ports that are restricted by bridges!? Both the ship and the Discovery have much in common but perhaps the thing that brings them together is flying the flag for the Best of British engineering and the two Captains proved that they can manage both. At 0800 they braved early morning traffic to Britannia, where they took the salute from some of their sailors before getting their next set of orders from the Yacht?s Head of maintenance, Derek Miller. Stop at the highest hedge in the world, watch out for squirrels crossing the road, take a deviation at Spittal of Glenshee, look out Port and Starboard Snow Poles, find the Devil?s Elbow and traverse it. Arrive at Her Majesty?s residence and ask for orders.?

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Russia’s PAK-FA Stealth Fighter vs. America’s Killer F-22

Entering the ring today are the two ultimate stealth fighters of the day, the F-22 Raptor and the PAK FA T-50. So who ends up on top if the two discrete aircraft end up neck and neck in a Within-Visual-Range (WVR) dance of death? The F-22 Raptor is the most maneuverable fighter the U.S. has ever made. The jets assist it in yaws as well as changing pitch, and permit very high angles of attack?that is, when the nose of the plane is pointed in a different direction than the vector of the plane. But it?s not the equal of the PAK FA?s agility. It can help the plane dodge missiles (useful in any scenario) and position itself in advantageous firing position for WVR combat. However, the most extreme maneuvers also cost a lot of a plane?s energy?and U.S. doctrine has always favored remaining in a high-energy state, and the F-22 appears like it bleeds energy more slowly than its Russian counterpart. Although the F-22 has a reduced heat signature, the bottom line is that in WVR combat, stealth fighters are still vulnerable to infrared guided missiles. For a long time, Russian aircraft had the advantage of superior short-range� R-73 �[7]�heat-seeking missiles that could be targeted via helmet-mounted sights: the pilot just had to�look�at an enemy plane to shoot at it. Importantly, the plane did not even have to be pointed at the target. However, the United States finally deployed its own equivalent of the R-73, the AIM-9X, in 2004, and F-22s are�finally�planned to have the capability to use AIM-9Xs by 2017. By the time PAK FAs are in operational units, the two planes will have roughly equivalent short-range missile capabilities. The Verdict:�Slight edge to PAK FA. Both aircraft are highly capable dogfighters?but the PAK FA looks like it?s the more agile of the two. And just to keep the audiences on its toes, we?ll examine the battle in�backwards�order, like in that one �Seinfeld episode �[6]. The PAK-FA patent claims a�maximum�of cross-section of 1 meter? those cool three-dimensional thrust vector nozzles in the back have a way of calling attention to themselves. This may not be a tremendous limitation if the PAK-FA fights defensive engagements in which its opponents are at the edge of their radar net. That may be of less concern for Russia?but it does mean that the PAK-FA will remain more detectable than the F-22 in a variety of situations. The F-22 and the PAK-FA both have Active Electronically Scanned Array radars?or rather, once the N036 Byelka AESA radar completes its development. The F-22 and PAK FA�will�be able to detect each other as they close within fifty kilometers?though which one first is a subject of debate. However, the F-22?s engines nozzles are designed to reduce heat signature, diminishing detection range, while the PAK-FA?s engines are indiscrete. In any event, the IRST does not offer the means to target other aircraft, it merely gives an idea of their general position. The T-50 also has its own L-Band radars in the wings which theoretically would be effective in determining the general position of stealth fighters. Unlike the IRST, they have the disadvantage of making the T-50 highly observable on radar when activated. Air Force exercises pitting Raptors against F-15s and F-16s are anything to go by, long-range missiles will ravage Fourth Generation fighters at distances at which they have little to no ability to detect and shoot back at stealth fighters. Russia has its cutting-edge� K-77M �[9]�missiles with a reported range of two hundred kilometers and the United States has the AIM-120D Scorpion with a range of one hundred sixty. (The greater range of the K-77M may be an advantage, but not against a low-observable stealth fighter.) Superior ramjet-powered missiles, such as the� Meteor �[10]�and� PL-15 �[11], are already being fielded, though it is not clear if either the F-22 or PAK FA will receive them. The F-22 can carry six AIM-120s in its internal bays, whereas the PAK-FA is limited to four. This does give it a modest edge, as future aerial clashes are likely to involve�a lot�of missiles flying back and forth, and likely more than one will be launched to ensure a kill. Many experts are �skeptical �[12]�that the PAK FA boasts fifth-generation avionics and networking technology used in the latest U.S. fighters. Operationally, F-22s will work in concert with an extensive network of supporting sensors and electronic warfare platforms, both at sea and in the air. History shows that the side that shoots first in vehicular combat usually wins, and the stealthier F-22 seems more likely to do so?though their capabilities may be more even in a head-on approach. The PAK-FA will only prove a significant opponent to the F-22 if it is produced in meaningful numbers. Which is to say: more than the �twelve �[17]�which are currently on order for delivery by 2020. It?s not as if the F-22 is particularly numerous?at 178 operational aircraft, a somewhat slender-thread on which to rest the United States? hopes for air superiority in the next twenty years. However, because the PAK-FA and Raptor are close enough in capability, a small number of T-50s will not suffice to radically challenge the Raptor?s reign?or even the F-35?s. It?s because it?s proving extremely difficult to deliver on all the design specifications, particularly the engines. The development costs keep on mounting, while the Russian economy has been in a recession for the last few years, decreasing the appetite for such an expensive offering. The current crop of PAK FAs is equipped AL-41F1 turbofans which are fuel inefficient and produce insufficient thrust, so the plan is to replace them with superior� Izdeliye 30 �[3]�turbofans once they finish development?which may take as long as�2027. In short, the PAK FA is a work in progress, its final capabilities unclear. This leads to another major issue: India, an investor in the PAK FA program, is complaining quite �publically �[5]�about cost and quality issues in the program; quality-control failings such as misaligned fittings may potentially increase the PAK FA?s radar cross-section. Let?s first acknowledge that the F-22 and T-50 share many excellent characteristics: both can supercruise (go supersonic without using afterburners) at over one and a half times the speed of sound?the Raptor faster than the PAK FA at Mach 1.8 compared to Mach 1.6. Indian� FGFAs �[18]�would potentially be more sophisticated than the Russian versions?but if India withdraws its order for over hundred aircraft, that project may prove even more difficult to finance. Nonetheless, Russia?s defense policies and economic fortunes may well change in the future and additional orders will likely be forthcoming one day as more of the stealth fighter?s systems are refined. For the time being, however, the evidence suggests that only a small quantity of PAK FAs will enter Russian service this decade?too few to alter the balance of air power in the near term. S�bastien Roblin holds a Master?s Degree in Conflict Resolution from Georgetown University and served as a university instructor for the Peace Corps in China. He has also worked in education, editing, and refugee resettlement in France and the United States.

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Pratt and Whitney Continues Adaptive Engine Breakthroughs with Latest Tests

21, 2017 : Pratt and Whitney, a division of United Technologies Corp. (NYSE: UTX), today announced it has successfully completed testing of an adaptive three-stream fan in an engine with an F135 core as part of the U.S. “From the development of the very first adaptive engine, the J58, which powered the iconic SR-71 Blackbird, to today’s F135 STOVL variant, our decades of experience with adaptive engine technology are unmatched,” said Bromberg. “We look forward to continuing work with our Air Force customer to advance the next generation of military fighter engine technology under the final phase of AETD, and beyond through the Adaptive Engine Transition Program (AETP).” “Preliminary data from the test indicates our three-stream fan has met or exceeded expectations with respect to performance as well as the integrity of the turbofan machinery and fan module,” said Matthew Bromberg, president, Pratt & Whitney Military Engines. “This is an important milestone on the path toward the advancement and maturation of a next generation adaptive engine which will enable the warfighter to stay well ahead of future and emerging threats.” Modern military turbofan engines have two airstreams – one that passes through the core of the engine, and another that bypasses the core. The development of a third stream provides an extra source of air flow to improve propulsive efficiency and lower fuel burn, or to deliver additional air flow through the core for higher thrust and cooling air. Utilizing a third stream of air that can be modulated to adapt the engine’s performance across the flight envelope means a fighter can have the best of both worlds by accessing an on-demand increase in thrust or smoothly shift to highly efficient operations during cruise. The adaptive three-stream fan technology leverages and improves upon Pratt & Whitney’s experience as the only provider of fifth generation fighter engines – the F119 and F135, which power the F-22 Raptor and F-35 Lightning II, respectively.

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Cyber gear that’s tough enough to kick off a helicopter

Gemstar and several other companies want to sell cases to the Marine Corps that include foam protection, cooling systems and customized designs to fit specific types of hardware. The average Marine?s kit is already weighed down with heavy battery packs, and the Corps is continuing a search for the perfect battery or mobile power source. ?They are all trying to find the right technology that can provide very high energy for a long period of time but it also has to be lightweight,? said Yves Destenaves, a product manager with Acumentrics, a Massachusetts-based company that specializes in battery and power systems. Acumentrics sells a 9-lb. battery system that is sewn into a standard Marine?s backpack with USB ports and traditional electrical-plug inputs accessible from the pack?s exterior and within reach for the warfighter. Robert Neller has frequently raised concerns about the Corps? need to push cyber capabilities, both offensive and defensive, down to the lowest level. He?s concerned that the Corps does not have enough Marines with cyber skills and fears the military?s networks are vulnerable and could be a critical weakness in a future war. QUANTICO, Va. �? The Marine Corps? surging interest in unit-level cyber capabilities was on display at the annual Modern Day Marine conference that opened here Tuesday, as dozens of vendors were hawking rugged processors, powerful battery systems and hard-shell cases that could provide advanced digital fires for forward-deployed Marines. ?You?ve got to be plugged in and connected to the network to be able to see what?s going on,? ?This is basically their ax when they go out in the field,?�said Bruce Imsand, the chief executive officer of MaxVision, the Alabama-based company that makes the CyberPac. ?This is for battalion-level incident response teams.? The Modern Day Marine conference at Marine Corps Base Quantico is the largest annual gathering of Marines and defense industry professionals who showcase their wares in the hopes of landing big contracts with the Corps. A large swath of the event was focused on providing computer processing power to Marines at the tip of the spear, whether for cyber capabilities or to fuel the increasingly complex intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance tools now required for expeditionary operations. ?If this stuff is going to get kicked out of a helicopter, the older cardboard boxes and wooden crates just don?t provide the protection that is required,? said Jeff Gazich, a sales manager for Gemstar, a Minnesota-based company that sells customized hard cases.

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The 10 Best Books to Understand Modern War and Technology

Spanning all topics, from artificial intelligence to nuclear bombs and cyberculture, you?ll be sure to walk away from these reads with more knowledge and understanding than you ever thought possible. This book makes known the reverberations that last long after combatants and civilians have returned home, a particularly poignant point as we approach the fifteenth year of continuous battle in the Middle East. Robert H. Latiff devoted his life to researching and developing new combat technologies, making him a�leading expert on the place of technology in war and intelligence. He has also calculated the cost of our innovation, weighing the benefits against the consequences.�In�Future War,�Latiff explains the ways in which war has changed, and discusses the new weapons we will use to fight and how the skills of a soldier will continue to adapt. He takes a look at the arms race and World War II, when we dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Zak?s reporting showcases a diverse set of beliefs on the issue of nuclear bombs, featuring points of view from the biophysicist who first exposed atomic energy to the world, the prophet who predicted the creation of Oak Ridge, generations of activists, and Washington bureaucrats and diplomats. Many books and movies have been centered on the development of AI gone wrong, making the topic all the more frightening. Max Tegmark ? an MIT professor who?s helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial ? takes an unbiased approach in his book by exposing a variety of viewpoints on the matter, and examines the meaning of life as it is now, and how it?ll change in the future. In The Hacking of the American Mind, Lustig reveals why we enter this state of consciousness, and calls to the conversation the big-name corporations that helped create this mess and the members of government who allowed it to happen. World Without Mind traces the history of computer science and exposes the corporate ambitions of Google, Facebook, Apple, and Amazon. In the book, author Franklin Foer argues that these four companies are a huge threat to our identities and decision-making abilities, with a great impact on intellectual property and privacy. To effectively save our individuality and change the course of the future, we must reclaim our private authority and alter the way that we engage with the corporate world. The Friendly Orange Glow documents the astounding, untold story of PLATO: the 1960s computer program that marked the beginning of cyberculture. PLATO engineers made notable hardware breakthroughs with plasma displays and touch screens, and are responsible for countless software innovations including chat rooms, instant messaging, message boards, screen savers, multiplayer games, online newspapers, interactive fiction, and emoticons ? all things that we couldn?t imagine living without today. The everlasting development of new technology has altered the nature of the way we live. They represent the four largest and most powerful corporations in the world today: Facebook, Google, Amazon, and Apple. And what will the future bring?�Galloway, one of the world?s most celebrated business professors, analyzes the strategies of the Four, and demonstrates how they manipulate us every single day. Renowned cartoonist Zach Weinersmith and well-known researcher Dr. Kelly Weinersmith join forces in Soonish to give readers a comic glimpse of the future, and the technologies that?ll likely transform our lives ? robot swarms, space elevators, and nuclear fusion powered-toasters, to name a few. The Weinersmiths combined their own research with that of the scientists to investigate why these cool technologies are needed, how they would work, and how we can achieve them in the nearish future. He looks at the way politics, economics, law, and ethics have changed in conjunction with technological advancements, and combines historical evidence with first-person accounts to prove that when technologies multiply, life on the front lines and at home are altered. Our advancements in military technology have made it possible to wipe out entire groups of people with one hasty decision, and our obsession with the internet only continues to grow. We are continuously replacing men with machines, and though taking humans off the battlefield makes wars easier to start, it leads to more complications than ever before. The future is laced with fear, and everything could dwindle away in dust and ashes if we move in the wrong direction. With the world around us constantly evolving, we need to be educated and prepared for what comes next. The best way to brace yourself for where we?re to go is to know where we are, and the list of books below can help you do just that.

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JPALS: Raytheon Pitches Carrier Landing System to Air Force, Army

Because the defense contractor is convinced that the same�Joint Precision Approach & Landing Systems�(JPALS) that helps Navy and Marine pilots find a pitching carrier deck in all sorts of weather can also help Air Force jets and Army helicopters find airfields on land through�darkness, dust storms,�and�enemy jamming.

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Announcing Techstars Autonomous Technology Accelerator with the U.S. Air Force

Techstars is excited to announce our second defense-focused accelerator and our second accelerator in Boston ? Techstars Autonomous Technology Accelerator with the U.S. Most exciting, however, is that we are working with some forward-thinking entrepreneurs inside the military who have realized that the pace of innovation in the private sector is accelerating away from the military. �To maintain a leadership position, �the U.S. military must start doing business with startups that otherwise avoid bureaucracy, by adapting their �business processes to match the commercial world, not the other way around. The Techstars Autonomous Technology Accelerator with the U. S. Air Force will focus on commercially viable startups with dual-purpose technologies? a private sector application as well as government application, including companies with autonomous technology that might enable or enhance the ability to detect, track, identify, characterize, attribute or mitigate drone systems, to include, but not limited to, sensor technology, high-performance computational hardware and software, computer vision and digital image processing, AI, multi-modal sensor integration, secure communications, trusted identification, power systems, high-performance materials, integration systems, and human machine interface. Go to our page to sign up for our email list to get updates on Techstars Autonomous Technology Accelerator with the U.S. Since that time more than 1,300 entrepreneurs have participated in Techstars Startup Weekend Boston and we have accelerated more than 100 companies through the Techstars Boston Mentorship-Driven Accelerator. For decades, the U.S. military has been a key driver of technology and innovation, with the Pentagon serving as the primary funder for early growth of Silicon Valley. In fact, the U.S. military is responsible for almost all of the technology in the iPhone . We wouldn?t have Siri without the Department of Defense.

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